1- Agriculture and Land Reclamation
Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy .The sector employs about 21.4% of Egypt's employees in 2018 which is the highest economic sector share in employment .
Farming is concentrated in the fertile Nile delta where cotton is cultivated and it is considered the highest income crop .
A high priority is to make Egypt 75% self-sufficient in wheat within the next ten years.
The 1.5 million acres project aims to increase the cultivated area .
The government is seeking to dig more than 1500 new wells in western desert in order to transfer the desert to arable land.
The agricultural seasons in Egypt are divided into three seasons: the winter season, the summer season and the Nile season, as well as the permanent or annual crops whose their production season are extends to a whole agricultural year such as sugar cane, fruit crops and timber.
2- Communication and Information Technology
CIT sector includes communications and IT which includes computer hardware , computer software , IT services .
Egypt's communications and information technology sector is a leading global outsourcing destination, Egypt is the leader in the MENA region and 14th worldwide on A.T. Kearney's 2017 Global Services Location Index (GSLI). This puts Egypt ahead of competitors in the region including Morocco which ranked 27th.
The government, along with telecoms operators, are working to develop Egypt's telecommunications infrastructure - which has been and will continue to be a driver of the PC market
The National Telecom Regulatory Authority (NTRA) granted the Fourth Generation (4G) mobile service license to the four Egyptian telecoms; namely, Telecom Egypt (TE), Orange, Vodafone and Etisalat.
Telecom Egypt (TE) was granted a license to install and operate the fourth generation (4G) networks for mobile phones in Egypt. The LE 7.08 billion license introduces the company into the market of mobile operation, where it will provide 4G services using new frequencies. The introduction of Telecom Egypt as a new mobile operator in the Egyptian market will increase competition among operators, which will benefit users by raising the bar on quality of services as well as improving prices.
Orange Egypt was also granted the licenses of establishing and operating the Fourth Generation (4G) mobile phone networks worth $ 484 million, as well as the licenses to offer virtual fixed-lines services worth $ 11.262 million. Moreover, NTRA signed with Vodafone Egypt the licenses of establishing and operating the 4G mobile networks worth $ 335 million, as well as the license to offer virtual fixed-lines services worth $ 11.262 million. In addition, Etisalat Misr was granted the licenses of establishing and operating the (4G) mobile networks worth $ 535.5 million, as well as the license to offer virtual fixed-lines services worth $ 11.262 million.
4G is the fourth generation of mobile phone technology and follows on from 2G and 3G. 2G technology was suitable for making calls and sending text messages while 3G makes it possible to access the Internet more effectively through mobile phones. 4G is ideally suited for services which demand more capacity like video streaming, mapping and social networking sites.
3- Food Processing
Real GDP growth of agriculture Is 11.5% in FY 2017/2018 which is the feeding of the manufacturing of the agriculture crops the main subsector of agribusiness industry.
The cultivated area in Egypt reached about 8970 thousands acres in 2018 , the agriculture crops the main subsector of agribusiness industry. which in turn represents the largest subsector of food processing followed by dairy products , readymade food, mills, oil and fats , natural water and others.
4- Health Care
At 91.5 million, Egypt is North Africa's largest country ranked 15th in the world in terms of largest population, equivalent to 1.2% of the world's population. The population, growing at an average rate of 2.2% per annum, will continue to fuel demand for infrastructure and services, including healthcare, having a direct impact on the evolving urban landscape.
Recently, The Egyptian HealthCare system is experiencing multiple improvements to ensure the health and wellbeing of the Egyptian people.
Two main government bodies are governing this sector: the Ministry of Health (MoH) and the Health Insurance Organization (HIO). While services are being provided by two main Sectors: the Government, (Public Sector), and the Private Sector.
5- leather Industries
Since hundreds of years ago, the Egyptian leather has been well known for its unique texture due to Egypt's warm climate. Thus, the leather industry in Egypt has been considered one of the most important industrial sectors in the Egyptian economy representing about 5% of the total industrial production of the country.
Leather industry is segmented as either leather tanning companies that export the raw leather to foreign countries or leather products distributors that import finished product leather goods from the foreign countries. The leather manufacturing companies are minimal as most companies in the leather business in Egypt defer from the complexities of the leather manufacturing process and prefer to either export the raw leather or import the handmade leather products.
Egypt posses' abundance of minerals, which vary in type, quantity and distribution locations. Mineral wealth in Egypt is classified into five basic categories:
a. Solid-state ores: It has a number of types, the most important ones, Carbonic materials such as coal, which are found in the rocks above the composition of phosphate in the governorates of the Red Sea and the New Valley.
b. Radioactive materials: Such as uranium, which is found in the rocks of the Eastern Desert and Sinai and is used in the production of nuclear energy.
c. Metallic materials: It includes three types of metals, iron ore, non-ferrous materials and precious metals.
d. Iron ore: Such as iron, which is one of the most important mineral wealth, which is famous in Egypt and is the basis of heavy industries, which issued in the car industry, trains and construction.
There are also many non-ferrous materials such as copper and precious metals such as silver, platinum, gold, non-metallic materials and finally the raw materials of chemical industries and fertilizers and all these minerals are available in large quantities and are exploited in production and export.
e. Construction Materials: Such as Granite, marble, white sand and limestone.
The Eastern Desert:
It extends from the Nile Valley in the west to the Red Sea, Suez Gulf, and Suez Canal in the East, and from Lake "Manzala" on the Mediterranean in the North of Egypt's southern borders with Sudan in the south. The Eastern Desert is marked with the Eastern Mountains that extend along the Red Sea with peaks that rise to about 3000 feet above sea level. This desert is rich with natural resources including various ores such as gold, coal, oil.
7- Oil and Gas
Egypt possesses a key role in regional and global energy markets. This is most likely attributed to its geographical proximity and strategic location at the crossroad of international trade of oil and gas, in addition to the control of two major transit routes: the Suez Canal and the Suez-Mediterranean Pipeline (SUMED).
The oil and natural gas sector accounts Egypt's GDP for around 38.4% in first half of FY (2018/2019) compared with 77.3% in first half of FY (2017/2018).
Petrochemical industry plays a vital role in the Egyptian economic development and growth. In recognition of the importance of petrochemicals industry in Egypt seconomy, along with the Introduction existence of successful drivers, petrochemical development strategy has settled to accelerate the implementation of such industry.
In September 2014 the Egyptian government announcement a USD12.5bn investment for the refining sector through to 2020. The government has suggested that refining capacity could increase to as much as 1.7mnb/d, though we have seen limited evidence of new projects advancing.
9- Pharmaceuticals and Medical Industries
Egypt has a lot to look forward to, with its many inherent advantages, including a strategic and cultural position in the world, a large and growing population and an underdeveloped private sector providing abundant chances for expansion.
Exports of pharmaceutical Industry reached 391.9 million USD as of FY 2017/2018, compared to 301.4 million USD for FY 2016/2017 with an increase of 30%, which reflects the increase in exports putting Egypt as one of the top exporters in the MENA region.
The Egyptian pharmaceuticals and cosmetics sector is considered the largest in the region with regards to growth capacity and expansion during the coming five years compared to similar sectors in neighboring countries.
10- Real Estate
Egypt is home to the largest population and market in the Middle East, this implies a steady – if not growing – need for residential and commercial property. Real estate is one of the most important sectors contributing to economic growth and affecting more than 90 industries related to construction. It is considered a labor-intensive sector as it accommodates at least 8% of the total labor force.
11- Transportation and Logistics
The transportation sector is the Trojan horse of economic growth in Egypt. As transportation networks are considered the arteries which economic and social activities flow through, where all sectors of the national economy depend on the services and facilities of this sector to link both production and consumption markets together, besides having the access to the needs of raw materials and services and operating.
The Suez Canal is crucial to both global shipping and to the Egyptian economy, with the waterway representing one of the biggest revenue-generators in Egyptian trade. It connects the Red Sea to the Mediterranean and acts as the country's major source of foreign currency, which generated by oil and gas exports, tourism and remittances from Egyptians living abroad.
The Egyptian infrastructure sector is picking up, which will boost dry bulk and project cargo volumes at Egypt's ports and on its roads. About 90% of Egypt's foreign trade is shipped through ports, while the country's logistics capacity continues to expand hand-in-hand with the volume of trade.
New bridge to potentially be built between Egypt and Saudi Arabia would be a boon for the Egyptian road and rail freight sectors.
New government legislation has allowed quasi-governmental bodies, such as Egyptian railways, to issue bonds, which will in turn result in greater investment.
China is actively investing in Egypt under the One Belt, One Road initiative.
Despite the extensive coverage of road and rail networks and significant development of port facilities, investment opportunities in Egypt abound. Some areas, such as Egypt's rail network, are in need of significant infrastructural improvement. Other subsectors, including ports and dry ports, offer investment opportunities in value-added services alongside large development projects. All facets of the sector are approaching maximum capacity, with major capacity shortfalls forecast over the coming five to ten years.